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Thirukkural has been broadly divided into three parts, of which the first deals with Aram (VIRTUE) the moral value of Life, the second discusses Porul (WEALTH), socio-economic values of Life, and the third on Kamam (LOVE), depicts the psychological values of Life. There are 38 chapters in the first part, 70 chapters in the second part and 25 chapters in the third part. In the third part, Thiruvalluvar plays the role of creative artist. But in the first two parts, we find Thiruvalluvar as a moral philosopher and political scientist. Only in the third part, Thiruvalluvar portrays the fascinating aspects of lovers, the Akam tradition which he has inherited from his ancestors.

No significant tribute is needed for the supremacy of its subject matter, than the fact that it has been translated into a number of languages of the World. Perhaps, it can be claimed that there is no other work of non-religious nature, which stand in comparison to Thirukkural. In the range of subject-matter and brevity of the couplets, Thirukkural excels the other didactic literature of the World.

As a great thinker, St. Thiruvalluvar, actually transgreeses the frontiers of language and creed. His scripture of Universalism has induced to recognise him as one of the greatest philosophers, to be placed in the midst of Socrates, Kant and Confucius, the illustrious moral philosophers of the mankind.

In the sphere of Political Science and Public administration, Thiruvalluvar seems supreme in his treatment and humanistic approach than Aristotle, Kantilya, Machiavell and Harold Laski.

When we take into consideration, the third part of Thirukkural, no other poet can be placed by the side of Thiruvalluvar, except the mysterious Roman poet, Ovid 43 BC - 18 AD., who immortalised the agony and anguish and the ecstasy and exhilaration of the loving-hearts in his famous Ars Amorous.

The KURAL's sentences are as binding as the TEN commandments on the jews. KURAL is as important and influential on the Tamil mind as Dante's great work on the language and thought of Italy.
- Mr Charles E. Gover


KURAL has entered into the very soul of a whole people. It proclaims sweetest mystic couplets on virtue, truth, wealth and joy. Valluvar is seer of spotless souls.

KURAL means 'anything short', and is properly the name of the couplet, as being the shortest species of stanza in the Tamil language.

Thiruvalluvar's poem is thus by no means a long one; though in value it far outweighs the whole of the remaining Tamil literature, and is one of the select number of great work which have entered into the very soul of a whole people, and which can never die.
- Dr G. U. Pope


Nothing in the whole compass of human language, can equal the force and terseness of the distiches in which the author of KURAL conveys the lessons of wisdom.
- Rev. P. Percival


It is a text-book of indispensable authority on moral life. The maxim's of VALLUVAR has touched my soul.
-Mahathma Gandhi


Thirukkural is the well known literary composition in the Sankam classics. This work proclaims the basic principles for the moral and material life of the people. The aphorisms about 'loving-kindness' reveal the humane approach of the poet to the problems of life.

The lofty ideals that are enshrined in thus didactic work transcends the barriers of race, creed, place and time. Besides, this universal and cosmopolitan outlook, Thirukkural shines supreme in its poetic excellences.
- Dr. Wilfried Noelle


No translation can convey an idea of its (Thirukkural's) charming effect. It is truly an apple of gold in the network of silver.
- Dr. Graul


Thirukkural is a treatise par excellence on the art of living. Thiruvalluvar, the author, diagnoses the intricacies of human nature with such penetrating insight, perfect mastery and consummate skill absorbing the most subtule concepts of love and modern psychology, that one is left wondering at his sweep and depth.
- Dr. K. M. Munshi


The KURAL, on the other hand all the time stays at the level of general principles, i.e., what may be called a mandatory ethics.
- Dr E. H. Hopkins

jkpopyÊ csÊs ÁyÊfspNyNa ¤wgÊßlkÊ ngwÊw ÁyÊ §UfÊFwsÊ.

,J mbgÊgiláyÊ xU thoÊåayÊ ÁyÊ. kdpj thoÊådÊ KfÊ¢a mqÊfqÊ fsh¢a mwkÊ myÊyJ jHkkÊ nghUsÊ ,dÊgkÊ myÊyJ fhkkÊ M¢atwÊiwgÊ gwÊwp åsfÊFkÊ ÁyÊ.

,eÊÁiy ,awÊwpatH §UtsÊStH. ,tUila ,awÊngaH vdÊd vdÊgJTkÊ NkwÊnfhzÊl åguqÊfSkÊ ruptujÊnjupaåyÊiy. ,tiugÊgwÊwprÊ nråtopkughfrÊ ¤y nraʧfsÊ åsqÊF¢dÊwd. MdhyÊ mW§ahd tuyhW ¢ilahJ. meÊjrÊ nraʧfspdÊ tháyhfgÊngWkÊ jftyÊfspdÊgb ,tH tsÊSt kuigrÊNrHeÊjtH vdÊWkÊ káyhgÊéupyÊ t¤jÊjtH vdÊWkÊ njup¢wJ; ,tUila kidåahH thR¢ mkÊikahH.fwÊßaYfÊF kpfrʤweÊj ,yfÊfzkhf åsqÊ¢atH. tsÊStH jhkÊ vO§a KgÊghyÊ Áiy jkpoÊrÊrqÊfjʧyÊ muqÊNfwÊwkÊ nraÊa kpfTkÊ ¤ukgÊglÊljhfTkÊ KbåyÊ xsitahupdÊ JizNahL muqÊNfwÊwpajhfTkÊ mrÊnraʧfsÊ tháyhf mwp¢NwhkÊ.

§UtsÊStiu ehadhH NjtH njaÊtgÊGytH ngUehtyH nghaÊáyÊ GytH vdÊWkÊ ¤y ¤wgÊGgÊngaHfshyÊ miogÊgH.

ßwÊfhyjʧyÊ §UtsÊStH ngauhyÊ NtW ¤yÁyÊfis NtW ¤yH ,awÊwpAsÊsdH. mit ¤jÊjH ,yfÊ¢ajÊijrÊ NrHeÊjit.

§UfÊFwsÊ ,awÊwgÊglÊl fhykÊ ,dÊDkÊ rupahf tiuaWfÊfgÊglåyÊiy. ¢U]ÊJt rfhgÊjjʧdÊ KdÊ gF§iarÊ NrHeÊjjhfgÊ gyH fUJtH.
goeÊjkpoÊ ÁyÊfspyÊ ehdÊF ngUkÊ gFgÊGfÊfsÊ csÊsd.

1.vlÊLjÊnjhif gjÊJgÊghlÊL M¢ait mlqÊ¢a g§nddÊNkyÊfzfÊF

2.g§nddÊ£oÊfÊfzfÊF

3.IkÊngUqÊfhgÊßaqÊfsÊ

4.IQʤW fhgÊßaqÊfsÊ
M¢ait mit.
mtwÊwpyÊ g§nddÊ£oÊfÊfzfÊF vdgÊgLkÊ g§ndlÊL ÁyÊfspdÊ tupiráyÊ "KgÊghyÊ" vdÊDkÊ ngaNuhL ,eÊÁyÊ åsqÊF¢dÊwJ.


"mwkÊ nghUsÊ ,dÊgkÊ" M¢a %dÊW ghyÊfSkÊ nfhzÊlikahyÊ "KgÊghyÊ" vdgÊ ngaH ngwÊwJ. KgÊghyÊfsh¢a M¢a ,it xtÊnthdÊWkÊ ",ayÊ" vdÊDkÊ gF§fshf NkYkÊ
gFfÊfgÊglÊLsÊsJ. xtÊnthU ,aYkÊ ¤y FwpgÊßlÊl m§fhuqÊfisfÊ nfhzÊljhf åsqÊF¢dÊwJ. xtÊnthU m§fhuKkÊ gjÊJghlyÊfisjÊ jdÊDsÊ mlfÊ¢aJ.


,gÊghlyÊfsÊ midjÊJNk FwsÊ ntzÊgh vdÊDkÊ ntzÊgh tifiarÊ NrHeÊjit. ,tÊtif ntzÊghfÊfshyÊ M¢a mfÊfhyjʧa KjyÊ ÁYkÊ xNu ÁYkÊ ,JjhdÊ.

FwsÊ ntzÊghfÊfshyÊ MdikahyÊ "FwsÊ' vdÊWkÊ "§UfÊFwsÊ" vdÊWkÊ ,J ngaH ngwÊwJ.


"gháukÊ" vdÊDkÊ gF§AldÊ KjçyÊ "mwjÊJgÊghyÊ" tU¢wJ. m§YkÊ KjçyÊ fhzgÊgLtJ "flTsÊ thoÊjÊJ" vdÊDkÊ m§fhukÊ. njhlHeÊJ "thdÊ ¤wgÊG" "ePjÊjhH ngUik" "mwdÊ tçAWjÊjyÊ" M¢a m§fhuqÊfsÊ.


mLjÊJtUkÊ ",yÊywåayÊ" vdÊDkÊ ,açyÊ 25 m§fhuqÊfsÊ; mLjÊJsÊs JwtwåaçyÊ 13 m§fhuqÊfSldÊ KjwÊghyh¢a mwjÊJgÊghyÊ gF§ KbTW¢wJ.


mLjÊJ tUkÊ "nghUlÊghç"yÊ muR ,ayÊ mikrÊR ,ayÊ xopG ,ayÊ M¢a ,ayÊfsÊ ,UfÊ¢dÊwd. muR ,açyÊ 25 m§fhuqÊfsÊ csÊsd. mikrÊR ,açyÊ 32 m§fhuqÊfSkÊ xopG ,açyÊ 13 m§fhuqÊfSkÊ csÊsd.


fil¤gÊghyh¢a ",dÊgjÊJgÊghyÊ" myÊyJ "fhkjÊJgÊghç"yÊ ,uzÊL ,ayÊfsÊ; fsåaçyÊ 7 m§fhuqÊfSkÊ fwÊßaçyÊ 18 m§fhuqÊfSkÊ csÊsd.
MfnkhjÊjkÊ 7 ,ayÊfsÊ; 133 m§fhuqÊfsÊ; 1330 ghlyÊfsÊ.


§UfÊFwis nkhjÊjkÊ 12000 nrhwÊfspyÊ tsÊStH ghbAsÊshH. MdhyÊ ,twÊwpyÊ IkÊgJfÊFkÊ Fiwthd tlnrhwÊfNs csÊsd.


"mfukÊ Kjy ntOjÊnjyÊyhkÊ M§
gftdÊ KjwÊNw AyF...."

vdÊW jkpoÊ neLqÊfzfÊ¢dÊ KjyÊ vOjÊjh¢a "m" åyÊ MukÊßjÊJ, 1330 MkÊ Fwsh¢a


"CLjyÊ fhkjʧwÊ¢dÊgkÊ; mjwÊ¢dÊgkÊ
$b KaqÊfgÊngwpdÊ"

vdÊW jkpoÊ nkhopádÊ fil¤ vOjÊjh¢a "dÊ" DldÊ KbjʧUfÊ¢whH.

thoÊåaçdÊ vyÊyh mqÊfqÊfisAkÊ §UfÊFwsÊ $WtjhyÊ mijrÊ ¤wgÊßjÊJgÊ gy ngaHfshyÊ miogÊgH: §UfÊFwsÊ KgÊghyÊ cjÊjuNtjkÊ njaÊtÁyÊ nghJkiw nghaÊahnkhop thAiw thoÊjÊJ jkpoÊ kiw §UtsÊStkÊ vdÊw ngaHfsÊ mjwÊFupait.


goqÊfhyjʧyÊ ,jwÊFgÊ gyH ciu vO§AsÊsdH. mtwÊwpyÊ GfoÊ thaÊeÊjjhf åsqÊFtJkÊ m§fkhfgÊ gadÊgLjÊjgÊglÊlJkÊ gupNkyofH ciujhdÊ. jwÊfhyjʧYkÊ gyH ciu vO§AsÊsdH. mtwÊwpyÊ jwÊrkakÊ ¤wgÊghffÊ fUjgÊ gLtJ §UfÊFwsÊ KDrhkpádÊ ciu.


jdpkdpjDfÊF cupikahdJ ,dÊgthoÊT; mjwÊFjÊ Jizahf csÊsJ nghUspayÊ thoÊT; mtwÊwpwÊnfyÊyhkÊ mbgÊgilahf åsqÊFtJ mwthoÊT. kdNj vyÊyhtwÊwpwÊFkÊ Mjhu epiyfÊfydÊ; kdjÊJfÊfzÊ kh¤ydÊ MjNy midjÊJ mwkÊ; mwjÊjhyÊ tUtNj ,dÊg
kÊ. mwtopáyÊ epdÊW nghUsÊ <lÊb mjidfÊnfhzÊL ,dÊgthoÊT tho NtzÊLkÊ. mtÊthW cyfkheÊjUkÊ ,dÊgKwrÊ nraÊaNtzÊLkÊ. nghUspayh¢a nghJthoÊTfÊFkÊ ,dÊg ,ayh¢a jdpthoÊTfÊFkÊ mbgÊgil mwkÊjhdÊ vdÊgJ §UfÊFwspdÊ nkhjÊjkhd NehfÊF.

cy¢NyNa m§f nkhopfspyÊ nkhopngaHfÊfgÊglÊLsÊs ÁyÊfspyÊ %dÊwhkÊ ,ljÊijjÊ §UfÊFwsÊ t¢fÊ¢wJ. ,Jtiu 80 nkhopfspyÊ nkhop ngaHfÊfgÊglÊLsÊsJ.


",iwtdÊ kdpjDfÊFrÊ nrhdÊdJ £ij

kdpjdÊ ,iwtDfÊFrÊ nrhdÊdJ §UthrfkÊ

kdpjdÊ kdpjDfÊFrÊ nrhdÊdJ §UfÊFwsÊ"

Introduction
xU mwpKfkÊ

Thiruvalluvar, the poet and philosopher of Tamilnadu - India is the everest of Tamil wisdom. Thirukkural, the masterpiece of Thiruvalluvar, which in a mini-work in size, contains 133 chapters on different aspects of life, and each chapter consists of ten couplets. So Thirukkural contains 1330 couplets. Each couplet is called Kural-Venba (KURAL), which is one of the basic metres of Tamil prosody.

 

The real greatness of Thirukkural is its survival, even after the onslaughts of many heterogenous creeds. In the last two thousand years, it never failed to attract any scholar or lover of wisdom. Everyone of them, never failed to treat Thirukkural as a finest composition. The following are few of such scintillating tributes to Thirukkural by the world scholars

 

Thirukural Tamil-TamilPower.com
Thirukural English-TamilPower.com